Technologies for Frugal and Sensitive Point-of-Care Immunoassays.

Kinnamon, DS; Heggestad, JT; Liu, J; Chilkoti, A
Immunoassays are a powerful tool for sensitive and quantitative analysis of a wide range of biomolecular analytes in the clinic and in research laboratories. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-the gold-standard assay-requires significant user intervention, time, and clinical resources, making its deployment at the point-of-care (POC) impractical. Researchers have made great strides toward democratizing access to clinical quality immunoassays at the POC and at an affordable price. In this review, we first summarize the commercially available options that offer high performance, albeit at high cost. Next, we describe strategies for the development of frugal POC assays that repurpose consumer electronics and smartphones for the quantitative detection of analytes. Finally, we discuss innovative assay formats that enable highly sensitive analysis in the field with simple instrumentation.